Tag Archives: Sustainable food concentration

Controlled Rot: Growing Mushrooms at MacLeish

27 Apr

“When life gives you lemons, make lemonade!” goes the proverbial phrase used to encourage making the best of what one has. At the MacLeish Field Station we have lots of forest that provides much shade. So why not grow food that does not require full sun—such as mushrooms? In April, eight students spent an afternoon inoculating logs with both blue oyster and shitake mushroom spawn. Their work was part of an agroforestry demonstration project being established this year at the Field Station.

Alexandra Davis ’18 and Lilly Williams ’18 drill logs in preparation for inoculation.

Inoculating logs is relatively simple. Holes drilled into recently cut logs are filled with mushroom spawn and then sealed with cheese wax.

Tracy Rompich ’21 inoculates logs with shitake spawn.

Tess Abbot ’20 and Molly Peek ’18 seal the spawn in the logs with cheese wax.

After being labeled, the logs are all stacked in the shadiest part of the forest. Over the 12 months the fungi will grow and spread throughout the logs, becoming well established, and hopefully begin fruiting mushrooms that we can harvest next summer!

Preparing hot chocolate for all the volunteers on the beautiful spring day are,
from left, Lily Williams, Molly Peek, Alexandra Davis, and Diana Umana ’19.

Florida Adventures with Native Bees!

14 Apr

I am a student Fellow in the Kahn Institute of Liberal Arts yearlong project “The Power of Disappearance”.  There are 15 faculty and 4 student Fellows in my group and we are all studying vastly different topics that revolve around the single word “disappearance”.  My honeybee passion has been ongoing for a few years now, and for this Kahn project I decided to push my boundaries and study disappearances within native bee species. I went into the project knowing I wanted to make a film, because making a film is much more fun than writing a paper or creating a powerpoint, both for me and the viewer.  Plus, I saw this as an issue that could inspire action, and films often have the power to do that.  The film Queen of the Sun is what initially got me into studying bees, and I wanted to pay homage to that.

Over Spring Break I traveled to Gainesville, Florida to interview researchers in the native bee biology lab at the University of Florida.  I had never been to Florida! Cory Stanley-Stahr, a post-doc in the bee lab, is an incredibly kind and knowledgeable person and was the person who I organized the trip with.  She picked me up from the airport and helped me set up interviews with people in the bee lab and community.

I filmed Cory explaining what native bee hotels are, and how people can help native bee populations by building bee hotels and providing more nesting spaces for these bees.  I also interviewed two of Cory’s lab technicians, including Mary, who dissected a frozen bumblebee hive to show me its components (have you ever seen the inside of a bumblebee nest?).  My aim is to create a film that educates people about bees (other than honeybees), explains why native bees matter, and addresses simple ways people can help native bee populations.

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The inside of a bumblebee nest- a still shot from my film.

You can read more stories and see pictures from my adventure at thesecret-lifeofbees.blogspot.com.  Also please come to my Collaborations presentation where I will be debuting my film on campus: Saturday April 18th at 10:45am in Seelye 106.

-Haley Crockett is graduating this May and is an American Studies major and proud Sustainable Food concentrator at Smith.

Smithies take a Fieldtrip to Crimson and Clover Farm

8 Dec

ThCC logois fall semester, students from the ENV 100: Environment and Sustainability: Notes from the Field lecture course, loaded into vans for a fieldtrip to Crimson and Clover Farm. Located in Florence, MA, Crimson and Clover works closely with the Northampton Community Farm in an effort to sustain community based farming. On 40 acres, they primarily grow fruit, vegetables, and flowers for their Community Supported Agriculture Program (CSA) and for nearby farmers markets. And thus—on a beautiful fall day—students toured Crimson and Clover with head farmer, Nate Frigard, exploring the open fields and greenhouses and learning about sustainable farming.


Back in the Smith classroom, students were asked to write reflection papers incorporating their newfound knowledge. Many wrote about how CSA models benefit small farmers, addressing how Crimson and Clover survives by their steady 300+ CSA members. One student reported that “in the variable world of farming, CSA provides both the producer and consumer with predictability and stability while still providing a superior product and healing the land and communities.” Another student recognized CSAs as imperative for maintaining balanced, creative, and sustainable diets year-round. Further addressing Crimson and Clover’s year-round CSA, she maintained: “year round production of food does not mean tomatoes in January in Massachusetts or individual chip bags hanging on trees, but bounty in the summer so that members can preserve for the coming winter.”

line up_CC

Alternatively, an international student from China offered a unique perspective. Addressing a recent experience she had at home, she reflected:

“This summer I went to my father’s hometown, a quiet village called XiaoXian in Anhui Province, China. I could not tell the differences in the village from my last visit ten years ago, but my father said there were some big changes going on right before my eyes. Land in rural China is owned by the government, not by individuals. After a reform in 1978, however, individual farmers were allocated lands for their own use. Today, lands are becoming cooperative once again, because young adults, who are supposed to be the main laborers in families nearly all leave for cities; those who are left behind are mainly the elders and children. Farmers no longer cultivate the land on their own and earn profits for their single household; instead, they work together. This pattern in China is similar to CSA in the States, for both of them invoke a sense of community and cooperation. They differ in that the Chinese farms still operate as a small part of the larger agriculture industry while in the U.S., the CSA makes itself a complete market. Instead of selling produce to an enormous market far away, to unknown customers, perhaps such collective farms in China could try to form a smaller, nearby market for themselves, like CSA farms in the U.S. After all, this was how agriculture worked in the old days. There are two obvious benefits of doing this: creating a tighter community and improving the food quality.”

These varied student reactions to the Crimson and Clover field trip remind us of the sense of community and the high-quality food desired across cultures and different backgrounds. They address the means by which we can, and are, creating reliable and small-scale food systems. A big thanks to Crimson and Clover for providing an educational day on the farm!

-CEEDS intern Odessa Aguirre is a senior at Smith College from Sonora, California. She studies Anthropology with a focus on immigration and Spanish. When she is not at Smith College, she is somewhere sunny and warm. Her future plans include backpacking in every feasible mountain range–and for the non-feasible mountain ranges, she has plans to train as a mountaineer.

It all begins with the community: a site visit to Azilal Province

23 Oct

This post by student in the sustainable food concentration about her experience in Morocco was originally published on the High Atlas Foundation blog on Wednesday, 21 May 2014 11:49


It was well past nine by the time we rumbled through the city to pick up Abderrahim. The streets of the medina were only just waking up from their Sunday morning snooze, but HAF’s Project Manager had been up since six. He hopped in the front seat of the taxi, passing back loaves of warm barley bread to the four of us scrunched into the back seat. We were happy to accept; it would be a long ride to Azilal province.

It is summer already in Marrakech. The city echoes with the slapping of thousands of sandals on hot pavement. People congregate at night in the cool parks, squares and cafés, sipping juices, feeding pigeons and chatting. But outside of the city the change in season takes on a larger significance. As we drive, we see on either side of the road small groups of men and women harvesting golden fields of wheat, scything the long grass with steady rhythm. The barley harvest has also begun, and the markets are already filled with fresh apricots, peaches, melons and plums. In a country where more than 45% of the labor force works in agriculture; the harvest is a matter of the utmost environmental, cultural and economic importance.

We drive north along a dusty road for a couple of hours before we stop at a roadside café. As we dip our bread in olive oil, honey and amlou – a nut paste mixed with argan oil – we discuss the agricultural system that produced our breakfast. What does it take to grow almonds, walnuts, and olives in the mountains of Azilal province? Why these crops? Encouraging fruit tree cultivation over grain or livestock production can be challenging, but the environmental and economic benefits, can be enormous. Today we’ll be seeing HAF’s methodology in action, visiting a tree nursery and seeing the beginnings of participatory planning in a local community. With the launch of HA3, the High Atlas Agriculture and Artisanal enterprise developed to connect farmers with organic markets domestically and abroad, these nuts and oils will mean increased family incomes and reinvestment in community development. But it all begins with the trees.


Our breakfast finished with sweet cups of tea, we head on toward the nursery, passing the incredible Bin al Ouidane lake with its myriad shades of blue and green. Dammed in the 1950’s for hydro-electric power and irrigation, the lake reflects all of the faded greens and clay reds of the mountains. The new nursery, built in partnership with a local cooperative, is nestled into the slope of one of these mountains. We half walk, half slide our way down to the terraced beds. The three large plots are all prepared for planting, and several workers have already begun propagating thousands of olives in the lowest bed. The farmers use varieties that are well adapted to this mountainous environment, and the cuttings used for planting come from local olive trees, dried briefly to prevent rot. Abderrahim is hopeful that the success rate could be over 90%, comparable to the nearby nursery at Ait Mohammed.

The two upper terraced beds will soon be filled with more fruit trees: walnuts mixed with the adult almonds already littering the land, providing ample saplings to distribute to local farmers. These varieties, unlike many fruit trees grown in the region, don’t require pesticides or intensive irrigation, and are therefore excellent candidates for organic cultivation. Additionally, on the mountainous soils of Azilal province, they are essential in the battle against ongoing soil erosion.

These nurseries represent a huge commitment from the participating communities – some trees, such as almonds, will mature enough to bear fruit in a couple of years, but others will take as many as seven or eight. The amount of labor required, especially early on in the process, is high, but regular labor is also required after the seedlings sprout. Yet the local cooperative has been more than willing to take on these responsibilities, ensuring regular maintenance by community members and leasing land. Efficient drip irrigation systems are the next step here. The community is making excellent progress considering they only began clearing the land in late February. Insha’allah, these neat rows will soon be spotted with olive seedlings.


 It’s now past noon and the blazing sun makes the air above us dance. Slowly, we make our goodbyes and work our way back up the hill to the taxi and toward Ourouizarght. It’s a small town, but a hub of the province, and it is here that we meet Amina. As the director of a women’s association in town, she’ll be joining us for a community visit to Ait Shribou, a nearby village. HAF hasn’t yet gotten involved in the community, so we’re here to introduce the organization and to get a feel for the conditions of the village, its environment and its agriculture. On the way there, we pick up women and children who volunteer to show us around. It is strikingly beautiful: walnuts are already coming in on the trees and some spring wildflowers are still in bloom. Si Hassan stops the cab by the edge of the road and we climb down into the valley.

The slopes are fairly steep and we stop in front of a small cave where one of the women invites  us to drink the spring water. Ait Shribou is built around this spring and its sweet water is syphoned off into an aqueduct and transported to surrounding towns. Further down the hill, several women have gathered with their children to wash laundry in the aqueduct, beating their clothes dry in the sun.


Despite its water resources, life in the village is difficult. We gather in a small shop on the other side of the valley to identify the most pressing community issues. The three men in the shop offer us a table and chairs, and join the women in discussing the state of the village. Soon, poster paper and colored markers are produced, and two of the younger villagers began to map out their community. From this, in Darija (Moroccan Arabic) mixed with Tamazight (the local Berber Amazigh dialect), the development priorities of the village are discussed. Soon the paper is splattered in red, green and blue and the whole table is laughing. Neighbors leading donkeys peek into the shop, buying sugar and candies for the kids, and fresh mint is brought for tea. The discussion continues for several hours, and at the end, a meeting with the women of the community is proposed for the coming weeks. Spirits are high as we thank our hosts and work our way back to the car. As soon as the wheat harvest is finished, these women too will drink cups of steaming tea and discuss strengthening the future of their communities, one tree at a time.

Amelia Burke, HAF intern
Photos: Amelia Burke

Amelia Burke, ’16 is in the process of accelerating by an academic year to compensate for time spent working and learning abroad. She studies Middle Eastern Studies, Environmental Science and Policy and concentrates in Sustainable Food and is interested in HLLM implementation in North Africa. She returned to Smith this fall and is HR of Parsons House.

A New Webpage, A New Emphasis on Local & Sustainable Foods at Smith

18 Apr

Last semester, students in the Environmental Science and Policy Capstone (ENV 312) initiated a dialogue with Smith College Dining Services in an effort to increase transparency between the administration and the student body about our institutional food purchasing. A defining goal of this partnership was to both celebrate and better incorporate local and sustainable food into the dining halls. With the help of Kathy Zieja, director of dining services at Smith, CEEDS, and the students within the ENV capstone, I (as a member of the Sustainable Food Concentration) have been given the privilege of building on this work as a local food intern with Dining Services. Since this is a new position, I assumed my main contributions would be creating and distributing signage to common spaces and/or using social media and ad campaigns to help promote and expand awareness of Smith’s current initiatives toward local food. Yet, I am happy to report that with the assistance of Kathy and Annie Cahill (web development specialist at Smith), I’ve helped redesign the local/sustainable food section dining hall website.

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Prior to this reboot, one would go to the Dining Hall webpage, scroll down to the Local & Sustainable Foods tab, and find an anticlimactic, somewhat conflicting view of Smith’s commitment to local food. While the header confidently stated “Dining Services is committed to supporting area farmers by purchasing as much local produce as possible” the image portrayed directly below this phrase was not that of area farmers or local foods but rather gleeful Smith students dishing up some unknown platter of meats. Furthermore, the two featured “local” foods were avocados (not local to Massachusetts…) and blueberries (local to New England but seasonally limited in availability during the academic year). I was surprised and confused by this misrepresentation because I knew Dining Services already had many initiatives to be proud to promote: a switch to Fair Trade/Organic Coffee from a Northampton based, independent roaster; a shift away from conventional eggs to cage-free, certified humane; and a sustained commitment to buying Berkshire Sidehill Yogurt, among others. After browsing through other university websites, I decided the best remedy would be to clearly state the importance of local and sustainable food and highlight current efforts by Dining Services to promote this access and awareness. Perhaps the most effective and meaningful alteration is the new sidebar which gives users a mini bio about our food distributors (who they are, where they are located, and what we source from them). Each bio contains a hyperlink to the farmer or distributor’s website, which allows those interested to better acquaint themselves with those responsible for the foods we eat everyday here at Smith. So too, we’ve added a sidebar featuring on-campus groups interested in making Smith a more conscious and intentional institution.

Check out the new Local & Sustainable Foods webpage!

-Emma Ulriksen, ’14
Emma is a senior living in Smith’s vegetarian cooperative, Tenney House. She is an American Studies major and Sustainable Food concentrator, particularly interested in the culture of food in the United States.

Top-Bar Beekeeping

21 Jan

For my second practical experience for the sustainable food concentration I decided to pursue an internship at a farm in rural Jamaica that does top-bar beekeeping. I am staying with Kwao and Agape Adams and their five sons, where I share a cabin with fellow intern, Kaat, right by the Caribbean Sea. Thus far, I have experienced building hives, inspecting and feeding bees, splitting colonies, transporting bees, preparing a new apiary, and traveling the island with beekeepers from the U.S. who train local beekeepers about top-bar techniques. Image                    Kaat and I holding comb while inspecting a hive.

Some things that make this internship incredibly unique:

1) It is a natural beekeeping internship.  Finding an internship opportunity with bees is fairly difficult, and to work on a farm that uses no chemical pesticides and only natural techniques is rare and amazing.

2) You can apply to come to the farm on dates that work for you.  Have plans for half the summer but want another learning experience for the other half? You can apply to come to Yerba Buena in a way that fits your schedule.  Along that vein..

3) You can come during J-term! January at Smith is…cold.  It is currently 90*F in Jamaica and sunny. It can also be hard to find opportunities during J-term.

4) Interns are required to keep a blog, which is excellent because it keeps a detailed record of what you do each day in picture and words, and can be used to illustrate your experience when applying for other internships and jobs.

5) The family eats strictly vegan (minus honey).  Many of my friends who are vegan have difficulty finding good food while traveling, but here we eat superbly well.

For more information you can check out my blog or visit Yerba Buena’s website.

-Haley Crockett, ’15
Haley is a rising Junior from Lamont House.  She is an American studies major, English minor, and a sustainable food concentrator.

There’s an App for That…

1 Dec

In my Enviroment and Sustainability: Notes from the Field course on October 21, a speaker posed the question, “Do you believe in benevolent capitalism?” My initial reaction to this question was: absolutely not. But as I listened to what Sheri Flies, assistant general merchandise mangager of Costco had to say during her talk, I became more convinced that it may be possible to attain such a goal if the ethics and integrity of a company’s mission statement is matched by management whose goal is not only profit, but also sustaining our environments and communities. The idea that a company would be as invested in bettering communities through ethical employment practices as they would be in their own profit, is quite groundbreaking. It is common to hear of large conglomorations that ignore the strains their companies put on the environment and people who work to supply their products.  The idea of benevolent capitalism is something that most people would want to support, however, the time and research it would take one person to ensure the products they purchase are being aquired without harming the environment, without exploiting individuals and communities, in addition to respecting the laws of the other countries that supply the ingredients they use—would be a task larger than the average person could even take on.  Through a bit of research, I have found an application that appears to fill this very need.  The buycott application (http://www.buycott.com/) is an app you can load onto your mobile phone or tablet device; after identifying which campaigns you support, when you search for a product, the app will cross-check to see how the company compares to the campaigns you are passionate about. 

For example, if a company uses gmos in their cereal and does not want gmos labeled, the app will tell you that the company not only supported, but funded the bill opposing gmo labeling. While this app is not perfect, mainly because information changes very quickly, it is still an easy to use tool for consumers looking to support companies that match their ethical guidelines—which is another step in the right direction towards benevolent capitalism.

Rachel Moyer ‘15

Rachel is an Ada Comstock Scholar, American Studies major and Study of Women and Gender minor. Originally from Seattle, WA, Rachel intends to pursue a career in journalism. She lives off-campus with her three cats.

Food For Thought!

19 Feb

Hello everyone!

My name is Eva McNamara, and I’m a senior here at Smith. I’m also a proud member of the new Sustainable Food Concentration, and this semester I am SO excited to be writing about all things food for CEEDS.

This week I thought I would start things off by discussing personal diet. It was only when I began to think about what I was putting into my body that I really realized how much of an effect my personal consumption has not only of my body, but also on my community, as well as the world as a whole. When I first arrived at Smith, I had never really thought much about limited diets (and by this I mean diets that exclude certain types of food—meat, dairy, gluten, etc), nor had any desire to explore them. In my mind, people became vegetarians because they had watched too many PETA videos, but oh my, was I mistaken! There are so many reasons for giving up different types of food, and so, as an apology for being so near sighted in my youth, this week I’m going to explore one of the most well-known of these diets, vegetarianism!


Vegetarianism (And a brush of Veganism!):

Vegetarianism is the most mainstream of “alternative” diets—nowadays most restaurants offer vegetarian options, from veggie burgers to fried tofu. But why would someone choose to cut meat and other animal products out of their diet? Here are a few things I’ve discovered about this choice.

MoralityThe choice to not eat animals simply because one believes that they should not be consumed for our benefit (or pleasure), is quite a common one. This idea sometimes develops because of religious doctrine (many Buddhists, for example, do not consume meat, and many Jains are known to advocate for Veganism), or it is simply a personal belief. Vegans go even farther than this—strict vegans do not consume any products that come from animals (such as milk & eggs) or wear things made of animal products (such as leather). Farming practices that are intensive (meaning that animals are raised in close, crowded quarters) also deter people from eating meat, as some people believe these animals should not be treated as commodities, but rather as emotional creatures worthy of our respect.

Health: There are many conventional livestock practices, especially in the United States, in which animals are raised in tight quarters and are fed a mostly corn-based feed diet. Along with this, animals that are being intensively farmed, like chickens, are often given antibiotics to prevent and treat diseases. Some people who choose not to consume these animals do so because they are wary of introducing these drugs into their diet, and while it perhaps may not have an immediately recognizable effect on their health, they are suspicious of long-term consequences. Some vegetarians and vegans also claim higher energy levels, more clarity of mind, higher happiness levels, longer and leaner muscles, and weight loss—which they attribute directly to cutting meat and animal products out of their diets.

Sustainability: By the National Corn Growers Association’s calculations, about eighty percent of all corn grown in the U.S. is consumed by domestic and overseas livestock, poultry, and fish. To put it more simply, this means that most of the corn grown in this country (about ten billion bushels annually, which is almost half of the world’s production!) is going to feed livestock. It is also common that cattle are unable to digest this corn-based feed, and this issue is combated with more antibiotics. About 400,000 farms in the US produce corn—using huge amounts of water and pesticides, while also depleting huge amounts nutrients (such as nitrogen), and destroying the soil quality. Because our world is not made of quickly  renewable resources, some believe that eating these animals and their products (while they may be tasty!) is perhaps unnecessary.

Environmental Concern: According to the EPA, ruminant animals (cattle, sheep, buffalo, and goats) account for about 28% of annual global methane emissions (that are attributed to human-related activities), which is about 80 million metric tons of methane! While these animals have digestive systems that allow them to break down tough plant materials, they produce methane (and also nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide) as a by-product. This fact alone is enough to turn many people away from these meats, especially beef! But dairy cows are also part of the problem (they contribute to about 23% of these emissions), which can lead people to avoid milk-based products as well. Another example for environmental concern is overfishing—the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that over 70% of the world’s fish species are either fully exploited or depleted. Bottom trawling nets, along with destroying coral reefs, often also catch unsuspecting, and unwanted, creatures. In the Gulf of Mexico, scientists estimate that for every pound of shrimp caught, between four and ten pounds of marine resources (think sea turtles!) are also trapped and die before they can be thrown back overboard. Huge amounts of fuel are also used to ship products nationally and internationally, which only contributes to our carbon emissions.

Product UncertaintyScandals which revolve around animal products (especially meat) are not uncommon, and just this week consumers in Europe were told that a product labeled “Beef Lasagna”, actually contained horsemeat (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-21406778). Because our food can travel thousands of miles and pass through many hands across the globe before it gets to our plates, thorough inspection and monitoring of products is not always as common as we’d like to think it is.

It’s unnecessary:  Although many people have argued about this, and special circumstances sometimes occur, most humans today (and throughout our history) have the ability to sustain themselves on a meat-free and/or vegan diet. Vegetables contain huge amounts of vitamins, are versatile, tasty, and can be just as (if not more!) filling than a meat-based diet. Kale alone contains 2 grams of protein per cup, more calcium than milk per calorie, and more iron than beef per calorie. Vegetables are also (usually) cheaper, and until recent eras it was only those who were geographically unable to grow (or import) produce, or those with more financial resources who ate meat and animal products regularly.

So, given all this, why would anyone want to eat animal products—and should we be eating them?

Well, along with certain animal products being hard to avoid in a lot of places around the world, they are also a huge part of many traditions, cultures, economies and religions. But, in many cases, people have no idea where there food is coming from—nor any easy way of finding out! However, there are many farmers that do understand and care about the negative environmental and health impacts that raising livestock can have, and they are attempting to farm in more sustainable, and less destructive, ways. The Pioneer Valley especially is full of farms who raise their animals without the use of antibiotics and pesticides, and treat them humanely. Grass-fed beef (meaning beef from cattle who are not fed corn based feed) and free-range chicken (meaning chicken that comes from birds who are kept in spacious, less confined enclosures) is becoming more commonplace in the supermarket, as customer awareness and demand rises. Buying these foods locally also cuts down on the fuel used (as the farm to market distance is shorter!), and it’s definitely nice to be able to drive to the farm where your milk and meat is produced. However, in many cases (because of government subsidies and mass production), these local products are more expensive and less available than their conventional counter-parts. So, while many people would like to purchase them, sometimes it is just not financially viable. However, one must remember that consumers have the ability to change the systems with their purchases, and should be especially wary of the effects these foods could be having on their health. If the consumer does not demand a product, chances are it will never be provided! Supporting local farmers means supporting local economies, as well as decreasing environmental, and, in some cases, health risks. But that’s a topic for another week!

Thanks for reading!

P.S. Wondering where I got these numbers and facts? Here are my resources, and a few suggestions for further reading!

Biello, David. That Burger You’re Eating Is Mostly Corn: Scientific American. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=that-burger-youre-eating-is-mostly-corn&page=2>

Kaza, Stephanie. 2005. Western Buddhist Motivations for Vegetarianism, Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion, 9(3): 385-411, 29 October 2012. http://www.shabkar.org/download/pdf/Western_Buddhist_Motivation_for_Vegetarianism.pdf

Nuttall, Nick. “Overfishing: A Threat to Marine Biodiversity.” UN News Center. UN, n.d.Web. 13 Feb. 2013.  http://www.un.org/events/tenstories/06/story.asp?storyID=800

“Major Crops Grown in the United States.” EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/ag101/cropmajor.html

“Ruminant Livestock.” Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. http://www.epa.gov/ruminant.html/faq.html

Sapontzis, Steve F. Food for Thought: The Debate over Eating Meat. Amherst (N.Y.): Prometheus, 2004. N. pag. Print.

Stiles, Margot L., Julie Stockbridge, Michelle Lande, and Michael F. Hirshfield. “Impacts of Bottom Trawling on Fisheries, Tourism, and the Marine Environment.” Oceana, May 2010. Web. <http://oceana.org/sites/default/files/reports/Trawling_BZ_10may10_toAudrey.pdf&gt;